Mechanisms of obesity and treatments to combat it.



What worries 8 out of 10 Americans is how to lose weight. Most dream of prodigious medications that melt fat effortlessly, without fatigue, or hunger, and that require no other effort than putting themselves in the hands of the masseuse or going to the sauna. We think of anything but actively participating in our own weight loss through diet and gymnastics. However, before starting you have to know that practically the diet and physical exercise are the only means that give lasting results. The repercussions of excessive obesity on the state of health, the medical theories that are related to this problem exceed the content of this article; therefore, it will only be about principles applicable to the practice of each individual.

The glands that are always accused of causing obesity, are very rarely responsible for this disorder. Apart from certain rare diseases, a glandular disorder does not cause excessive weight gain, even if it is the thyroid glands, whose hormone activates the combustion. Certainly, if the ovarian hormones in women sometimes cause a water retention at the level of the abdominal cavity, especially before periods, being disordered and being overweight are the consequence of the same disorder ; they have nothing to do with each other. Hormones have never made anyone lose weight; Nerve disturbances due to affective shock alter the function of the hypothalamus where the regulatory center of hunger and satiety is located.

In general, it tends to get fat because it eats excessively in relation to the energy expenditure of the person. In almost all countries, the foods that make you fat are precisely the cheapest where you can get them: bread, flour, sausages ... in general, too much fat and sugar are consumed instead of protein foods and too much alcohol is consumed. In obese people, the pancreas secretes too much insulin. Now, excess insulin excites hunger; appetite is increased by sugars and it is for this reason that insulin is only prescribed to people with a healthy weight. Insulin assimilates sugars that are transformed into fats instead of burning in the muscles; the cup of sugar then goes down into the blood producing hypoglycemia, but as soon as this rate falls, a vacuum is experienced that is only calmed with sugar. Eating sugar causes a new insulin secretion by reaction and the cycle resumes.

Doctors are currently testing supplying some pancreas regulators. The thick people also have too many enzymes in the intestine from which a greater absorption of food is derived at this particular level of sugars. The old doctors caused diarrhea to lose weight since it was a matter of logic although not always recommended in practice; the solution is possibly to be found in the anti-ferments currently being studied. Thick people have less need for energy, since their active mass (muscles) is weak and they work with few calories. If their needs were calculated in relation to their weight, they would have to be valued at 30% above reality. In addition, its fat layer reduces calorie loss and the same fatness often causes a sedentary life and a lack of exercise. For these series of reasons we should not be surprised that thick people gain weight more easily than an average individual with the same contribution of calories, an obese person needs 2,500 calories to gain a kilogram, a "normal" person needs 6,000 and a thin person 9,000; therefore, the contribution of calories to the body has to be reduced, adapted to real needs and at the same time trying to increase combustion.

Treatments for obesity can be grouped into four sets: medications, physical exercise, physical treatments, and regimen. Although doctors are prescribing fewer and fewer medications, there are combustion accelerators (thyroid extracts, casein iodine etc.) to burn off the reserves more quickly. They are effective, but can often cause intolerances and also increase appetite. Strictly speaking, weak doses are usually used to start a weight loss cure, in case of gynoid obesity (this occurs around the lower body: hips, belly, thighs, knees) they are suspended at the slightest sign of excess or intolerance. Diuretics initially cause dramatic and rapid weight loss. However in reality it is a loss of water and not of fat that can unbalance the proportions of liquid in the body that must be constant; by reaction the organism secretes a hormone that fixes the water and can no longer continue acting its excess can also injure the kidneys.

Currently, its use is not so recurring; There are two types of medicines that curb hunger: mucilage’s or equivalents, which swell in the stomach and whose large volume gives an impression of satiety; and stimulants that act through the brain. The former are sometimes very unpleasant to drink and the latter, which at first are useful to calm hunger or to avoid the temptations to eat, only cause weak and little persistent weight loss and their excess cause’s insomnia, nervousness and depression. Food-meals: powders, drinks, tablets etc.; They provide a reduced but balanced ration, from time to time they can replace a meal but get tired quickly and also by not leaving residues they can cause constipation. Some medications that are not properly for fatness can help in some cases to the treatment of pathological excessive obesity such as painkillers, stimulants, and regulators of the pancreas or intestine when what we want is to reduce the weight by one or two kilos it is better not to resort to them.


When a sedentary person suddenly begins to exercise, his appetite increases and tiredness overtakes him. An obese person, needs to walk 90 km to burn 1kg of fat, at the beginning of a weight loss cure it is better to rest as long as possible in serious cases it is recommended to be in bed and then gradually resume a moderate but regular activity, that supports the action of the regime. The most convenient thing is to walk a few kilometers every day on level ground, do a little physical exercise and also some swimming, rowing or cycling because all these activities cause combustion and make the reserves burn. However, the practice of gymnastics or a sport should not be started abruptly so that fatigue does not occur. Regarding compressed air, sauna or other sweating procedures, massages, electrical treatments etc.; keep in mind that they only cause water losses that recover quickly, but as long as they are not taken suddenly, they can be useful because they detoxify and cleanse the body. They should be taken as alternative treatments since in most cases their results are not lasting.

In short, the regimen is the only safe and lasting effect to combat any type of fat. You have to choose a regimen that can be followed with a minimum of effort, without cheating even unconsciously. Doctors with minor differences in detail are all in agreement today as to the type of regimen we should follow. It is based on the latest dietary discoveries and includes in balanced proportions all the nutritional elements in sufficient quantity so that the organism does not have to bear certain deficiencies and does not cause tiredness or a feeling of hunger so that it can be easily observed; that although the calorie contributions are reduced to a minimum, it does not break the eating habits of each person. For example, in the fractional regimen, its principle is the following: every time you eat calories are consumed to digest and assimilate, therefore, it is a mistake to miss certain foods to lose weight.

The digestive juices that are secreted in greater abundance cause foods to be transformed into fat that should be partly burned. The organism adapts quickly as soon as the system of a very abundant single food begins, after a few days the elements of the food that comes to stop taking are stored as reserves. A voracious hunger is felt and the insulin cycle that has already been discussed resumes; if the daily ration is divided into six equal doses, or at least four and a total of 1,000 calories are supplied, it is a sufficient regimen to lose 220 to 250 g daily for a period of six weeks to two months.

Losing weight has become an obsession for modern women and many of them practice foolish regimes to lose a few pounds; in these cases they also often lose their good mood, their beauty, and especially their health. In the case of real obesity, no regimen should be followed without consulting a doctor, and you must also avoid the miraculous medicine that has gone so well for a friend as it can be very dangerous. It must be thinned little by little so that the heart and circulatory system adapt without problems to the new eating rhythm and so that the skin in turn does not suffer with the change. Any loss of weight greater than a tenth of the total weight in a year is dangerous; in these cases, defenses against infections decrease and wounds heal poorly.

At the present time there is talk of android obesity of the male type and gynoid of the female type, without this implying that both types of fat have a necessary relationship with sex. The first affects especially the upper body: nape, neck, shoulders, arms and upper part of the trunk; It occurs mainly in men and women of a certain age and is usually associated with a plethoric appearance and an active temperament; gynoid obesity occurs especially in the lower half of the body: hip, buttocks, belly, thighs, knee, and is usually associated with a pale appearance, relaxed and blurred features and a sad, restless and indolent temperament. Diffuse obesity is placed between these two previous extremes. Localized obesity or cellulite is an excess of fat that is limited to certain areas: abdominal cavity, butt and knees. Treatments will vary depending on the form of obesity.


Making a seemingly bulky meal with light foods so that it is easier to feel satisfied, for example in Asia a chicken drumstick with rice and bamboo shoots can feed a family of four. Therefore, crispbread or toast, which always have fewer calories than fresh white bread, are highly recommended. Also, we must not forget that 100 g of bread are eaten more easily, which are two and a half slices of a 700 g bread than of crispbread. The American housewives cut the sausage very finely for the children's snack and thus save some money; to go on a diet this is a good trick since two thin slices seem to fill more than a single thick one. We also tend to cut the salad into small strips if it is done often it will be found that with a small amount a mountain of lettuce comes out and it has the advantage that the salad prepared in this way absorbs less amount of dressing.

Until recently, bread was the staple food of most of the North American population in many countries, however, as the general index of the standard of living has increased, its importance as a staple food decreases; quite the opposite has happened with cakes and sweets since the increase that consumption of these products has experienced in recent times is considerable. It is impossible to know exactly the place that vegetables and fresh fruits occupy in the diet of an average citizen. Making statistics is difficult because a large part of these products are never commercialized since those who live in the countryside obtain their own crops or buy what they need directly from their neighbors, and also many who, even living in towns, have a garden or an orchard in which they cultivate for entertainment vegetables or fruits whose products increase family consumption.

In general terms, it can be said that a thick person is one who weighs more kilos than he measures above one meter in height. A weight gain of more than 10% above the ideal weight is as much as the beginning of obesity; more than 30% is considered medium obesity, more than 50% is considerable obesity. To keep a check we must establish the weight curve every 10 days. In any diet to lose weight, it is mainly recommended that you do not eat more calories than is strictly necessary, so it is advisable to abstain from foods that have a high energy value in a small volume, such as seafood and sausages; instead, white fish and grilled meats as well as hard-boiled eggs are recommended. All kinds of legumes including beans and starches in general as well as fatty meats such as pork are contraindicated in any diet to lose weight due to the large number of calories they provide. The same can be said of alcoholic beverages although you can have a glass of wine with meals as long as the calories it provides are deducted from the diet.

Here is a simple weight loss regimen. This regimen can be followed for a certain time because it is easy to follow and prepare and it is well composed, providing you with the nutrients and calories that your body requires. There is no hunger and you can lose 1 to 3 kg per week; every two days you eat as follows:

-For breakfast: ½ Lt of coffee with skim milk, 1 slice of toast, 1 hard-boiled egg and 1 fruit.

-For the mid-morning snack: 200 ml of skim milk without sugar and with a sweetener you can take it cold, with coffee or tea or 2 bananas.

-For lunch: 1 grilled chicken breast with lettuce salad with 1 sliced green tomato, half a grated carrot, seasoned with a little oil and a little lemon juice. 500 ml of vegetable broth with little salt. 1 orange or apple.

-For a mid-afternoon snack: 1 cracker and 500 ml peach or peach juice.

-For dinner: 2 hard-boiled eggs and repeat the above lettuce salad.

You should drink a lot of water between meals, the other days you eat normally. Remember the recipe is repeated twice a week, it is recommended to do it on Monday and Thursday.


Some people more than gain weight swell, so a regime that eliminates fluid will make them lose weight. The cure of water that should be taken one or two hours after meals is recommended as more convenient, this method, although it seems paradoxical, is more effective than reducing drinks and does not have the disadvantages of diuretics. You can drink between one liter and two liters of water, green tea, lemon infusion is prepared by boiling water with lemon slices, chamomile infusion to which lemon juice will be added. As far as food is concerned, it can be eaten normally but fruits rich in water should be removed; fruit cures are not a panacea. The only fruit cure that is especially indicated is the grape because it is diuretic, non-toxic and restorative.

The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from metabolic syndrome, gallbladder disease and fatty liver. The higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in obese people is mostly the result of the association of these three risk factors. This incidence may increase, if other cardiovascular risk factors are associated, such as sedentary lifestyle and smoking. The factors that influence adolescent obesity are the same as those for adults. Frequently, a slightly obese teenager gains weight quickly and becomes substantially obese in a few years. Many obese teens have a poor self-image and become progressively more sedentary and socially isolated. Their parents often don't know how to help them.

There are not many options available in treatments for obese teens. There are few commercial programs planned for them, few doctors who have experience in the specific treatment of adolescents and in the use of drugs that help them. Schools provide diverse opportunities for nutrition education and physical activity, but these programs rarely focus enough on teaching teens how to control obesity. Sometimes a surgical intervention is carried out when obesity is important. Behavior modification can help teens control obesity. It consists of reducing calorie consumption by establishing a well-balanced diet with the usual foods and making permanent changes in eating habits, as well as increasing physical activity with exercises such as walking, cycling, swimming and dancing. Vacation camps for obese teens generally help them lose a considerable amount of weight; however, without sustained effort the lost weight is usually regained. Psych sociological assistance to help adolescents cope with their problems and combat their low self-esteem can be helpful.

The number of people suffering from obesity is double between the ages of 20 and 50 and it decreases dramatically after this age, the reason ... fatal complications, very often combined, that will end the person's life, commonly between the ages of 50 and 60 years. People who are overweight and obese have been teased and occasionally discriminated against, they have been found guilty of suffering from their condition, while the truth is that they have been victims of a disease that affects not only the physical aspect of life, but also emotional and behavioral, a disease that is now considered and treated as "a fatal, chronic and progressive disease of epidemic proportions" The causes are varied, but what has probably most influenced is the acquisition of new eating habits, With the so-called junk food, the harmful effect of television and computers, tablets and smartphones have greatly reduced physical activity.

Carynel S. Avila

I live in a small coastal town on the American continent. In my free time I like to read suspense stories. I have been writing novels, poetry, essays, my own stories and articles on topics that I like to read for a few years. I hope you identify in some way with me and with the product of my imagination.


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